M.Sc. in Vrikshayurveda (Interdisciplinary) – Prevention, Cultivation & Development of Medicinal Plants


National Institute of Ayurveda is a premium institute under Ministry of AYUSH. It is a deemed university running various academic programs in Ayurveda such as BAMS, MD/MS, Ph.D., DANP & Certificate Courses. Recently, NIA has launched Post-Graduate Interdisciplinary M.Sc. courses.One among the course is related to Vrikshayurveda.

National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur


Understanding of the importance of medicinal plants in global health sector.

· Identification of Challenges and knowledge of their mitigation methods for sustainable quality medicinal plants supply, their optimum utilization and conservation.

· Knowledge and techniques of production and quality evaluation of medicinal plant material.

· Knowledge and practice of management of complete supply chain of medicinal plants.


· Medicinal plant consultants in government organizations, pharmaceutical companies, and non-governmental organizations and with plant breeders related to medicinal plants propagation.

  • Work as raw drug suppliers and also manage the supply chain for the pharmacies. 

· They can pursue Ph.D. in the related fields after completing this course.

· This course will aid in the holistic improvement of existing knowledge regarding the conservation, cultivation.

Departments (Specialities)

 Equivalent Term
PoshanaharaAyurvedic Diet & Nutrition
Ayurveda ManuscriptologyAyurveda Manuscriptology
Ayur-Yoga Preventive CardiologyAyurveda Preventive Cardiology
Marma Chikitsa evam Kreeda BheshajMarmalogy & Sports Medicine
Saundarya AyurvedaAyurveda Cosmetology
VrikshayurvedaPrevention, Cultivation & Development of Medicinal Plants

Degree to be Awarded

DepartmentDegree to be awarded
PoshanaharaM.Sc. in Ayurveda Diet and Nutrition (Poshanahara)
Ayurveda ManuscriptologyM.Sc. in Ayurveda Manuscriptology
Ayur-Yoga Preventive CardiologyM.Sc. in  Ayur-Yoga Preventive Cardiology
Marma Chikitsa evam Kreeda BheshajM.Sc. in Marmalogy and Sports Medicine (Marma Chikitsa evam Kreeda Bheshaj )
Saundarya AyurvedaM.Sc. in Saundarya Ayurveda (Ayurvedic Cosmetology)
VrikshayurvedaM.Sc. in Vrikshayurveda-


2 Seats in each department


DepartmentEligible Criteria
PoshanaharaBAMS/BSMS/BHMS/BUMS/BNYS/MBBS/ B.Sc in Dietetics/M.Sc in Dietetics/ B.Sc in Food and Nutrition
Ayurveda ManuscriptologyBAMS/BSMS/BHMS/BUMS/BNYS/MBBS/ M.A in Sanskrit
Ayur-Yoga Preventive CardiologyBAMS/BSMS/BHMS/BUMS/BNYS/MBBS/ Other AYUSH graduates
Marma Chikitsa evam Kreeda BheshajBAMS/BSMS/BHMS/BUMS/BNYS/MBBS/ Other AYUSH graduates
Saundarya AyurvedaBAMS/BSMS/BUMS/BHMS/BYN/MBBS/ Or Equivalent Medical degree/ B.Sc. in Skin Care and Aesthetic Medicine or any equivalent degree
VrikshayurvedaBAMS/BSMS/B.Sc. (Agriculture) /B.Sc. (Horticulture)/ B.Sc. (Forestry)/ Any other Science Graduate passed with minimum 50% Marks




  • 50% marks will be from the respective field
  • Remaining 50% will be based on the general knowledge, current affairs and computer knowledge.




1ST YEARRs. 29650/- + REFUNDABLE Rs, 8000/- TOTAL = Rs.37650/-
2ND YEARRs. 26650/-

Syllabus for Vrikshayurveda:

Sl.NoPaper 1Basics of Ayurveda135 Hrs
1Unit: 01Definition and Components of Ayu, definition and aim of Ayurveda, Brief introduction of Ayurveda Samhitas.4
2 Definition of Swastha Purush, Introduction of Parameters of Swasthya and Tray-upastambha.6
3 Introduction of Concept of Panchmahabhuta Theory, Tridosha Theory and Loka Samya Purush.6
4 Introduction of Concept of Saptadhatu, Mala and Ojus.4
5 Introduction of Concept of Srotas.3
6 Introduction of Concept of Prakriti, Mana and Atma.5
7 Introduction of Concept of Raspanchaka.7
8 Introduction of Panchvidha Kshaya Kalpana.2
9 The concept of Roga, Main Etiological Factors, Chikitsa and its Types.4
10 Introduction      of      Various      Sections/Departments      of Ayurveda and their Specific Activities.14
11Unit :02Definition of Word Research and Classification of Research      –      (pure/applied;                         qualitative/quantitative; observational and interventional)5
12 Historical Background of Research in Ayurveda.2
13 Introduction      to      Classical      Methods      of      Research- Aptopdesh, Pratyaksha Anuman and Yukti.6
14 Research Process- Brief Introduction of Selection of Topic, Review of Literature, Formulation of Hypothesis, Aims and Objectives, Materials and Methods, Observation and Results.4
15 Concept of Ethics in Research.2
16 Publication of Research, Structuring of Article (IMRAD).4
17 Brief Introduction of Medical Statistics2
18 Collection and Presentation of Data.4
19 Definition of Average, Percentile, Arithmetic Mean, Median, Mode, Range, Standard Deviation and Standard Error.5
20 Parametric and Non-Parametric Tests.6
21Unit : 03 History of Vrikshayurv edaHistory and Scope of Vrikshayurveda.3
22Unit :04 Ethno- botany and folklore medicineEthnobotany, its scope, interdisciplinary approaches.2
23 Ethnic groups of India : major and minor tribes, life styles of ethnic tribes, conservation practices of biodiversity, taboos and totems.3
24 World centers of Ethnobotany with special reference to India2
25 Role of Ethnobotany in national priorities specifically health care2
26Unit :05Dravyaguna        Shastra         Paribhasa-         Lakshana         of1
 Introduction to Dravyagunav igyanSaptaPadartha of DravyagunaVijnanavizDravya- Rasa- Guna- Virya- Vipaka- Prabhava and Karma. 
27 Dravya: Etymological derivation, definition, panchbhoutikatwa. Classification of Dravya according to Samhitas and Nighantus Taxonomical classification.3
28 Guna:        Etymological       derivation,        definition        and Classification of Guna. Detailed knowledge of Gurvadi Guna & Paradigunas.5
29 Rasa: Etymological derivation, definition, Meaning of “Rasa” in various contexts. Shad Rasas (Madhura, Amla, Lavana, Katu, Tikta, and Kashaya), Panchabhautik constitution of Rasas, Nirvrittiviseshakrama (manifestation in general and particular), Ritu and shad rasa Rasanurasayohbheda (Difference between rasa and anurasa), Lakshana (characteristics),Guna and Karma of shad Rasas, Kopana and Shamana of Dosha and dushya by Shad rasas. Effects of excess usage of Rasa. Rasopalabdhi, Rasaskandha.5
30 Vipak-       Etymological derivation, definition, swaroop, types, guna and karma, vipakopalabdhi, difference between rasa and vipak, importance of vipak4
31 Veerya – Etymological derivation, definition, swaroop, number of veerya, panchbhautika composition, actions, veeryoplabdhi, veeryanirdharana, importance of veerya2
32 Prabhav – Etymological derivation, definition, swaroop2
  33 Karma – Etymological derivation, definition, swaroop, brief knowledge of different types of karma mentioned in ayurveda6
Sl.No.Paper 2Plant Systematic, Pharmacognosy and Cell Biology135 Hrs
1.Unit 1 – Plant SystematicAngiosperm Morphology, structural units and floral symmetry, dicot and monocot flower; structure, diversity origin and evolution of stamen, carpels; placentation types and evolution. Floral adaptation to different pollinators.10
2. Angiosperm Taxonomy: Scope, aims, principles of taxonomy, historical development of plant taxonomy, Taxonomic structure: taxonomic hierarchy, concept of taxa, concept of species, concept of genus and family.5
3. Classification      of      angiosperms:      Natural,      Artificial, Phylogenetic system of classification2
4. Systems of classification: Linnaeus, Bentham & Hooker and Hutchinson (merits and demerits)2
5. Taxonomic tools: herbarium, floras, monographs, botanical gardens, biochemical and molecular techniques, computers and GIS.3
6. Plant nomenclature: Salient features of ICBN Probable ancestors of angiosperms, primitive living angiosperms, speciation and extinction, IUCN categories of threat, distribution and global pattern of biodiversity.3
7. Study of Families (Dicot): Ranunculaceae, Fabaceae (Papilionoideae,             Caesalpinioidae,                                                Mimosoidae) Cucurbitaceae,                                    Lamiaceae,     Asteraceae,                                    Apocynaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae10
8. Study     of     Families     (Monocot):    Liliaceae,                 Poaceae, Orchidaceae5
9.Unit 2 Pharmacog nosyGeneral introduction – History, definition and scope of pharmacognosy, ,1
10. Classification of crude drugs1
11. Scheme of pharmacognostic studies of crude drug,1
12. Phytopharmaceutical2
13.Analytical pharmacog nosyDrug adulteration ,2
14. Methods of drug evaluation – Biological testing of herbal drugs, Phytochemical investigations3
15.Unit 3 Namroopgy anDefinition and importance2
16. Ancient way of nomenclature of plants3
17.Unit 4 Cell and molecular biologyCell wall: Structure; function; biogenesis and growth; cell differentiation3
18. Plasma membrane: Membrane architecture (fluid mosaic model); sites for ATPases;membrane transport – ion carriers, channels, pumps and aquaporins; receptors.7
19. Plasmodesmata:     Structure,      role     in     movement     of molecules and macromolecules; comparisonwith gap junction.4
20. Cellular organelles: Ultra-structure and function of golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, Endoplasmicreticulum, mitochondria, chloroplast and plant vacuoles.6
21. Cell shape and motility: The cytoskeleton; organization and role of microtubules andmicrofilaments; motor movements, implications in flagellar& other movements, cell division5
22. Protein sorting: Machinery involved, vesicles, coat proteins; protein targeting toplastids, mitochondria, peroxisomes, nucleus, vacuoles; modification during transport.5
23. Nucleus- Ultra structure and functions, Chromosome structure and types,4
24. DNA- Denaturation and Renaturation, C-value paradox, DNA replication – polymerases, primers and mechanism – molecular methods of DNA replication.5
25. RNA – Types, molecular organization, genetic code, transcription mechanism in prokaryotes and post transcription processing, enzyme system in transcription, transcription process in eukaryotes. Ribosomes and Translation in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes5
26. Cell cycle and apoptosis: Control mechanisms, role of5
  cyclins and cyclindependentkinases; retinoblastoma and E2F proteins; cytokinesis and cell plate formation; programmed cell death in plants; regulation in plant growth and development. 
27. Signal transduction: Overview, receptors and G- proteins, phospholipid signaling, role of cyclic nucleotides, calcium- calmodulin cascades, diversity in protein kinases and phosphatases, specific signaling mechanisms e.g. two- component sensor-regulator system in bacteria and plants, sucrose sensing mechanism7
28. Techniques: Electrophoresis, immunotechniques, FISH, GISH, confocal microscopy, Gene amplification – PCR, DNA finger printing.4
  135 Hrs
Sl.NoPaper 3Plant-Biochemistry, Metabolism andPathology135 Hrs
1.Unit 1 Plant BiochemistryBiochemical organisation of the cell and transport processes across cell membrane.3
2. The concept of free energy, determination of change in free energy from equilibrium constant and reduction potential, bioenergetics, production of ATP andits biological significance.10
3. Introduction to 3D structure of protein, stability and denaturation of protein, allosteric proteins.4
4. Enzymes : Nomenclature, enzyme kinetics and its mechanism of action, mechanism of inhibition, enzymes and iso-enzymes in clinical diagnosis.6
5. Co-enzymes : Vitamins as co-enzymes and their significance, Metals as coenzymesand their significance.5
6. Lipids Metabolism : Oxidation of fatty acids, a-oxidation & energetic, B-oxidation, μ-oxidation, Biosynthesis of ketone bodies and their utilization, Biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, Control of lipid metabolism,Essential fatty acids & eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes) phospholipids, and sphingolipids.12
7. Biological Oxidation : Redox-Potential, enzymes and co- enzymes involved inoxidation reduction & its control, The respiratory chain, its role in energy captureand its control, Energetic of oxidative phosphorylation, Inhibitors of respiratorychain and oxidative phosphorylation, Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.10
8.Unit 2 Plant metabolism and developmentPlant-water relations: Properties of water, diffusion, diffusion pressure deficit and its significance; Osmosis: Concept, types, osmotic potential and its significance; Imbibition: concept and significance Water conduction through xylem: Root pressure theory, cohesion-adhesion theory; transpiration; stomatal opening mechanism with reference to K+ -malate hypothesis Phloem transport: Munch hypothesis10
9. Mineral nutrition: Role and deficiency symptoms of macro- and micro- nutrients (N, P, Fe, Mn, B, Ca); Solute10
  transport: passive (Donnan’s equilibrium), active (carrier concept) Respiration: Structure of ATP, types (aerobic and anaerobic respiration), respiratory substrates and Respiration quotient, glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (ETS), chemiosmotic potential theory; fermentation (alcohol and lactic acid), photorespiration 
10. Photosynthesis: concept, definition, significance, photosynthetic pigments and their role, action spectra, Emerson’s enhancement effect, red drop mechanism; photolysis of water (Hill’s reaction), cyclic and non- cyclic photophosphorylation, Light independent reactions: C3, C4 and CAM pathways and their significance; factors affecting photosynthesis Nitrogen metabolism: Mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation, importance of nitrate reductase10
11. Phytochromes: Pr and Pfr forms, their role, Circadian rhythms and biological clock4
12. Plant growth regulators: Role of auxin, cytokinins, gibberilins, ABA and ethylene4
13. Plant    movements:    Tropic     and     nastic     movements Photoperiodism:           physiology            of                                               flowering, photoperiodism and vernalization, role of florigen4
14. Senescence and abscission1
15. Seed dormancy: Causes and role, methods to break seed dormancy3
16. Plant defence: Definition: Hypersensitive response and Systemic    acquired     resistance;     Role     of    secondary metabolites (Terpenes and phenolic compounds)4
17.Unit 3 Plant pathologyImportance, definitions and concepts of plant diseases, history and growth of plant pathology, biotic and abiotic causes of plant diseases.4
18. Growth,     reproduction,     survival     and     dispersal      of important plant pathogens, role of environment and host nutrition on disease development.4
19. Host parasite interaction, recognition concept and infection, symptomatology, disease development- role of enzymes,   toxins,        growth        regulators;        defense strategiesoxidative burst4
20. Phenolics, Phytoalexins, PR proteins, Elicitors. Altered plant metabolism as affected by plant pathogens2
21. Genetics of resistance; ‘R’ genes; mechanism of genetic variation in pathogens; molecular basis for resistance; marker-assisted selection; genetic engineering for disease resistance.4
22. Disease management strategies.2
23.Unit 4 Basics of cultivationFundamentals of cultivation methods – Agro-climatic parameters, Propagation methods, Nursery Methods, Plant Protection Measures, Harvesting & Post Harvesting Management, etc.15
Sl.NoPaper 4Phytochemistry,        Herbal         Drug                                               related technologies and development135 Hrs
1.Unit 1 Natural plant products &Phyto- chemistry-Carbohydrates         –        Introduction,                                        Definition, Classification, Nomencleture, Sources4
2. Glycosides – :Introduction, Definition, Classification, Nomenclature, Sources, importance, Structure , chemistry5
3. Vitamins – :Introduction, Definition, Classification, Nomenclature,      Source,      importance,Structure      , chemistry , structural elucidation of Ascorbic acid4
4. Steroids – Introduction, Definition, Classification, Nomenclature,        Source,                                       importance,Structure, chemistry, structural elucidation of cholesterol.4
5. Terpenoids – Introduction, Definition, Classification, Nomenclature, Source, importance, Structure, chemistry , structural elucidation of Citral, Menthol and Zingiberene.Isoprene and Special Isoprene rule. Anti-bioti5
6. Plant       harmones      –       Introduction,      Definition, Classification,     Nomenclature,                  Source,importance, Structure, chemistry, structural elucidation of Auxins.4
7. Natural      pigments      –      Introduction,      Definition, Classification, Nomenclature, Sources, importance, Structure , chemistry ,3
8. Amino acid – Introduction, Definition, Classification , Nomenclature, Source,importance, Preparation and Properties of amino acids.3
9. Alkaloids – Introduction, Definition, Classification, Nomenclature,       Sources,                                      importance,Structure, chemistry,5
10. Lipids (Fixed oils, Fats & Waxes) – Introduction, Definition, Classification, Nomenclature, Sources enzymes and protein drugs4
11. Volatile         Oils         –        Introduction,                         Definition, Classification, Nomenclature, Sources3
12. Tannins-Introduction,      Definition,      Classification, Nomenclature, Sources3
13. Resins – Introduction, Definition, Classification, Nomenclature, Sources3
14.Unit    2     –              Drug standardization –     in     terms        of Phyto-chemistry and Pharmacology  
15. General Introduction: Definition, source of herbal raw       materials,       identification,      authentication, standardization of medicinal plants as per WHO guidelines & different herbal pharmacopoeias.4
16. Standardizations: Determination of physical and4
  chemical constants such as extractive values, moisture content, volatile oil content, ash values, bitterness value and foreign matters applicable to the various herbal drugs. 
17. Drug         Research         (Laboratory-based)-        Basic knowledge of the following: Drug sources: plant, animal and mineral.2
18. Methods of drug identification.2
19.Unit 3 Safety issues                 and Quality Control Measures.Quality control and standardization aspects: Basic knowledge of Pharmacopoeial standards and parameters as set by Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.4
20. Safety aspects: Protocols for assessing acute, sub- acute and chronic toxicity studies. Familiarization with AYUSH guidelines (Rule 170), CDCSO and OECD guidelines.4
21.Unit 4. Herbal drug            related Technologies and DevelopmentMethods of extraction, isolation and purification of phyto-constituents.3
22. HPLC, HPTLC and other advanced techniques.3
23. General methods of processing a herb – Definition, sources, identification and authentification of herbs; Different methods of processing of herbs like collection, harvesting, garbling, packing and storage conditions; Methods of drying – Natural and artificial drying methods with their merits and demerits8
24. Methods of preparation of herbal extract and essential oils – Principles of extraction and selection of suitable extraction method; Different methods of extraction including maceration, percolation, hot continuous extraction, pilot scale extraction and supercritical fluid extraction with their merits and demerits; Purification and Recovery of Solvents.8
25. Isolation and estimation of phyto-constituents.3
26.Unit 5. Modern analytical techniques  
27.Spectroscopic techniquesUV-Visible Spectroscopy: Principle of UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Chromophores and their interaction with UV-visible radiation and their utilization in structural, qualitative and quantitative analysis of drug molecules. Fundamentals of Optical Rotatory Dispersion. Cotton effect curves, octant rule, circular dichroism.8
28. Infrared Spectroscopy: Infrared radiation and its interaction with organic molecules, vibrational mode of bonds, instrumentation and applications, interpretation of IR spectra. FTIR and ATR, X-ray diffraction methods6
29. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Magnetic properties of nuclei, field and precession, chemical shift concept, isotopic nuclei, reference standards and solvents. 1 H NMR spectra, chemical shifts, multiplicity, coupling constants, integration of signals, interpretation of spectra, decoupling- double resonance and shift reagent methods; APT and DEPT techniques.8
30.Chromatographic techniquesChromatographic techniques: Principles of separation and application of Column, Paper, Thin layer and Gas chromatography, HPLC, HPTLC, Size exclusion                   chromatography,                                       Affinity chromatography, Electrophoresis. Instrumentation of HPLC, Preparative and micropore columns, Reverse phase columns, Mobile phase selection and detectors in HPLC.8
31.Unit       6.       Basic knowledge         of pharmacology especially experimental pharmacology.Introduction to pharmacology- Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, Natural Product Pharmacology.5
32. Introduction to experimental pharmacology- knowledge of different animal models for assessing the plant safety and efficacy5
 Total135 Hrs
Sl.NoPractical540 Hrs
1.Assessment of Prakriti2
2.Determination of rasa panchaka in some common dravyas4
3.Introduction of various sections/departments of Ayurveda14
4.Clinical protocol writing exercise on a given problem15
5.Scientific article writing5
6.Identification of medicinal plants ( medicinal plant garden visits 3 hrs per week)90
7.Microscopy of 30 medicinal plants90
8.Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evalution of 15 plants90
9.Practical related with plant pathology10
10.Different laboratory visits to understanding different techniques HPLC, HPTLC, Spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques50
11.Experiments with minimum 5 animal model30
12.Field visits for understanding cultivation techniques – 5 plants50
13.Practical training of extraction of different phytochemicals50
14.Practical training regarding different physicochemical parameters of plants40

                                                                                                2nd Year                                                                                               

  Sl.No  Paper 1Basics of plant production & breeding techniques – Ancient and modern methods  135 Hrs
1.Unit    1. ProductionPrinciples    of    Crop– Definition and scope of Agronomy,3
2. Classification of Crops on Different basis,3
3. General principles of Crop production : Climate, soil and its preparation, seed and seed sowing, post-sowing tillage, water management, nutrition, plant protection measures, harvesting, threshing and storage,15
4. Crop sequences and systems with emphasis on mixed cropping and inter cropping, etc.5
5.Unit 2 Fundamentals of Soil Science –  
6. Definition of Soil, Components of Soil and their role in agriculture, ,3
7. Soil forming rocks and minerals, Development of Soil profile, Soil formation, factors affecting soil formation, soil forming processes5
8. Soil reaction and its measurements and significance,5
9. Physical properties of soil, and their significance, Chemical properties of soil, cation and anion exchange phenomenon and their importance in agriculture, etc.10
10. Principles and Practices of Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management5
11.Unit 3. Agricultural Meteorology–     Different    meteorological    variables related to agriculture, ,.10
12. Rainfall-     Hydrologic    cycle     and     it’s components,     Types     and     forms     of precipitation8
13. Humidity, definition, windvane, Anemo- meter,5
14. Indian Agro Climatic Zones Elementary idea of weather forecasting,5
15.Unit        4. PhysiologyElementary       Crop– Role of plant physiology in agriculture, Cell structure and function,10
16. Bio-Physico-chemical phenomenon- diffusion, osmosis plasmolysis and imbibitions, Absorption of water and mineral salts,10
17. Photosynthesis reactions, etc.lightanddark5
18.Unit     5.     Principles     of               Plant Breeding– Plant Breeding-history, objectives and scope,5
19. Mode of reproduction in crop plants in relation to breeding techniques,20
20. Plant variation kind and causes, Genetic consequences of self and cross pollinated crops, etc5
Total135 Hrs.
Sl.NoPaper 2Medicinal Plants Cultivation, Collection and Conservation135 Hrs
1.Unit 1. Conservation of medicinal ConservationNeed of conservation of medicinal plants, Types of conservation – in situ, ex situ5
2. Knowledge of Extinct, Endangered, Vulnareble species of medicinal plants and their conservation method5
3.Unit 2.Cultivation & Conservation techniques of 100 selected medicinal plants100
4.Unit 3.Good Agricultural & Collection Practices – GACP guidelines5
5.Unit 4. Organic farming- Ancient and             modern techniquesDefinition, History, scope, and importance5
6. Different Methods of organic farming5
7.Unit 5. Collection practices                                   – Ancient              and modern aspectsAncient method of plant collection –     according to season and according to maturity of plant parts5
8. Modern methods of plant collection and storage of raw material5
Sl.No.Paper 3Medicinal Plants Improvement and Legal Issues135 Hrs.
1.Unit 1. Improvement of medicinal plants –Ancient and modern methods for improvement of medicinal plants.40
2.Unit 2. Biotechnological Approaches and Agro- techniques for Medicinal Plants  
3.Cell and Tissue CulturePlant tissue culture media, plant hormones and growth regulators in tissue culture, preparation of suitable explants – Immunodiagnostics and molecular diagnostics in selection of elite plant species – Callus culture, suspension cultures, embryo culture; anther, pollen and ovary cultures. Micropropagation of plants – somatic embryogenesis, protoplast culture, somatic hybridization and synthetic seeds.30
4.Genetic engineering in plantsGenetic engineering in plants, selectable markers, reporter genes and promoters used in plant vectors – direct transformation of plants by physical methods15
5. Application of DNA technology – transgenic plants with reference to virus and pest resistances – herbicidal resistance – stress tolerance (heat & salt) – cytoplasmic male sterility – resistance to fungi and bacteria – delay of fruit ripening – secondary metabolite production15
6.Unit 3. Introduction to organizationsNational Medicinal Plants Board, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Food and Agriculture Organization etc.10
7. Contribution of national research laboratories (CDRI, CIMAP,RRC,AND NBRI) in medicinal plants10
8.Unit     4.     Legal     issues regarding collection and cultivation practices.Biopiracy5
9. Intellectual Property Rights and patents5
10. Pharmacovigilance5
 Total135 Hrs.
Sl.NoPaper 4Medicinal Plants – Trading, Funding, Entrepreneurship135 Hrs.
1.Unit     1.     Trading and Economics of medicinal plants.Marketing and utilization – Export of medicinally important plants (General aspects),4
2. Market intermediaries and their role – Need for regulation in the present context4
3. Problems in medicinal plant Marketing from Demand and Supply and Institutions sides. – Marketing Efficiency –10
4. Structure Conduct and Performance analysis – Vertical and Horizontal integration – Integration over space, time and form-Vertical co-ordination,10
5. Direct marketing, – Contract farming and Retailing – Supply      Chain      Management      –      State      trading, Warehousing and other Government agencies10
6. Performance and Strategies – Market infrastructure needs, performance and Government role10
7. Performance analysis of Regulated market and marketing societies. Analysis on contract farming and supply chain management of different medicinal plants10
8. Chain Analysis – quantitative estimation of supply chain efficiency – Market Intelligence – Characters, Accessibility, and Availability Price forecasting.10
9. Online searches for market information sources and interpretation of market intelligence reports10
10.Unit 2. Knowledge of funding sourcesBanking and sources of finance, working capital management, costing and pricing, Insurance etc10
11.Unit 3. Entrepreneurship and management.  
12.EntrepreneurshipIntroduction to Entrepreneurship, Concept, characteristics of entrepreneur, types and functions of entrepreneur, difference between entrepreneur and a manager. knowledge of achievement motivation and positive psychology, risk assessments, SWOT analysis etc.12
13.ManagementThe Business – Its Nature and Scope Meaning, characteristics, objectives and scope of business, difference between business and profession, interrelationship between industry, commerce and trade10
14. Fundamentals of Management : Meaning, characteristics, difference between management and administration, management process, working capital management, inventory management, human resource management, production and operation management, marketing management. Accounting need, meaning, objectives, journal, ledger, trial balance, final accounts- profits and loss accounts,15
 Total135 Hrs
Sl.NoPractical540 Hrs.
1.Dissertation on Selected Topic300
2.Crop Field Visits for Minimum 15 Plants150
3.Practical for Conservation Techniques for Minimum 15 Plants75
4.Practical Training regarding Collection of Medicinal Plants15
 Total540 Hrs

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